[Objective] This study explores the characteristics and structure of international technology diffusion in different fields by China and the United States, from the perspectives of patents and the Belt and Road Initiatives. [Methods] First, we collected needed data from PCT international patent cooperation and transnational patent applications. Then, we used social network QAP analysis to measure the synergy of the two technology diffusion channels technically and regionally. [Results] China’s patent strategy in countries along the Belt and Road has achieved some positive results, while the technology diffusion formed a high degree of synergy. However, there are some gaps between China and the United States in technology diffusion. [Limitations] The study only compared the technological diffusion of China and the United States. The characteristics of other technology diffusion channels, such as intellectual property trade, were not analyzed. [Conclusions] This study could help China more effectively implement the Belt and Road Initiative.
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