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Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery  2017, Vol. 1 Issue (5): 2-11    DOI: 10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2017.05.02
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Impacts of Time Constraint on Information Behaviors in Pedestrian Navigation
Wu Dan(), Li Yi, Dong Jing
School of Information Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
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Abstract  

[Objective] This paper investigates the impacts of time constraint on users’ information behaviors in pedestrian navigation and their interaction experiences. [Methods] We recruited 20 college students and randomly divided them into two groups (with and without time constraint) for the pedestrian navigation experiment. These participants completed two different types of tasks: Outdoor and Indoor Pedestrian Navigations. [Results] We found that time constraint induced some feeling of stress. However, there was no significant difference among the strength of time pressure. Once the users did not know their destination and its exact location, the time constraint posed significant impacts to task duration, time spent on text page and the number of slides on the screen. When users knew their destination but did not know its specific location, the time constraint has no significant impact on users’ information behaviors. For indoor navigation, users’ zooming and sliding activities were significantly influenced by time constraint. [Limitations] The number of participants in our experiment is small. [Conclusions] Time constraint affects the information behaviors of pedestrian navigation system users. With time constraint, they could reach the destination quickly by reducing screen operations.

Key wordsTime Constraint      Time Pressure      Pedestrian Navigation      User Information Behavior     
Received: 07 February 2017      Published: 06 June 2017
ZTFLH:  G250  

Cite this article:

Wu Dan,Li Yi,Dong Jing. Impacts of Time Constraint on Information Behaviors in Pedestrian Navigation. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 2017, 1(5): 2-11.

URL:

http://manu44.magtech.com.cn/Jwk_infotech_wk3/EN/10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2017.05.02     OR     http://manu44.magtech.com.cn/Jwk_infotech_wk3/EN/Y2017/V1/I5/2

OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
时间
压力
2.6(1.11) 2.4(0.66) 2.2(1.08) 2.3(0.78) 2.2(0.98) 2.4(1.02)
U=45, P=0.692 U=47.5, P=0.840 U=46.5, P=0.779
任务
难度
2(0.89) 2.3(1.1) 2.4(1.02) 1.7(0.64) 1.9(1.22) 1.9(0.7)
U=42.5, P=0.540 U=30, P=0.112 U=43.5, P=0.600
任务
满意度
3.3(1.19) 3.3(1.19) 4(1) 3.9(1.04) 4.2(0.75) 3.7(0.78)
U=50, P=1 U=47.5, P=0.841 U=46.5, P=0.779
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
任务时长 1065.4(369.04) 1438.9(300.54) 1041.3(340.98) 1001.7(262.59) 333.3(182.58) 350.1(211.59)
U=24, P=0.049* U=49, P=0.940 U=48.5, P=0.910
搜索时长 19.5(27.29) 13.5(16.48) 34.3(33.69) 31.2(13.43) 19.6(25.61) 27.8(21.3)
U=48, P=0.874 U=35, P=0.256 U=36.5, P=0.304
导航时长 585.8(380.42) 732(601.49) 797.2(399.95) 684.2(374.81) 183.9(160.48) 174.3(154.22)
U=46, P=0.762 U=46.5, P=0.791 U=47.5, P=0.849
地图操作
次数
29.5(14.02) 48.8(41.38) 15.4(8.43) 17.6(11.28) 20.7(13.01) 21.1(14.83)
U=21, P=0.028 U=44.5, P=0.677 U=49.5, P=0.970
地图页面
停留时长
620.8(362.69) 987.1(581.41) 828.2(347.61) 783.1(321.97) 285.8(179.03) 214.9(132.15)
U=29, P=0.112 U=49, P=0.940 U=40.5, P=0.473
文本页面
停留时长
81.7(56.42) 164.3(75.42) 12.5(26.86) 2.5(4.84) 15.1(20.44) 25.2(39.55)
U=19.5, P=0.021* U=43, P=0.534 U=47, P=0.818
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
点击次数 16.2(9.78) 16.1(6.95) 5.4(3.14) 4(2.24) 4.6(6.68) 3.8(2.99)
U=47.5, P=0.850 U=37, P=0.320 U=31.5, P=0.149
滑动次数 10.8(6.21) 27.3(10.86) 7.9(8.2) 8.4(7.46) 7.8(6.48) 13.8(12.92)
U=7, P=0.001* U=45.5, P=0.733 U=37.5, P=0.344
缩放次数 2.5(2.87) 5.4(6.33) 2.1(2.34) 5.2(4.79) 8.3(6.57) 3.5(2.62)
U=40, P=0.443 U=28.5, P=0.100 U=22.5, P=0.037*
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
上滑 4.7(2.37) 14.8(6.76) 1.7(2.05) 2.2(2.52) 1.3(1) 7.8(9.58)
U=9.5, P=0.002* U=46.5, P=0.784 U=20, P=0.021*
下滑 3.3(3.72) 5.6(3.5) 1.4(1.96) 0.8(1.4) 1.3(2) 2(1.84)
U=29.5, P=0.118 U=44, P=0.594 U=37.5, P=0.327
左滑 1.9(2.43) 2.9(4.41) 3.3(4.41) 3.4(3.53) 3.6(3.35) 2.3(3.07)
U=47.5, P=0.842 U=50, P=1.000 U=36, P=0.274
右滑 0.9(1.81) 4(6.57) 1.5(2.38) 2(1.95) 1.6(2.65) 1.7(2.41)
U=27.5, P=0.068 U=38, P=0.340 U=46.5, P=0.780
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
放大 1(1.26) 3.9(4.76) 1.5(1.8) 3.8(3.34) 6(4.22) 2.7(2.19)
U=40, P=0.443 U=28.5, P=0.098 U=20.5, P=0.024*
缩小 1.5(2.06) 1.5(1.91) 0.6(0.66) 1.4(1.8) 2.3(2.79) 0.8(0.98)
U=50, P=1.00 U=39.5, P=0.394 U=36.5, P=0.282
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
标志物数量 0.9(0.94) 1.6(1.28) 5.4(3.14) 4(2.24) 4.6(6.68) 3.8(2.99)
U=35, P=0.225 U=32, P=0.165 U=45, P=0.669
标志物明显程度 3.6(0.8) 3.9(0.7) 3.7(0.78) 3.5(0.67) 3.9(0.94) 3.5(0.67)
U=41, P=0.460 U=42.5, P=0.518 U=36.5, P=0.270
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
难度 0.30 -0.30 0.56 0.38 0.43 0.20
满意度 -0.67* 0.61 -0.65* -0.58 -0.60 -0.10
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
任务时长 0.46 -0.41 0.17 0.50 0.37 0.41
搜索时长 -0.17 0.44 -0.33 -0.22 0.43 -0.06
导航时长 0.35 -0.53 0.40 0.47 0.52 0.40
OPN1 OPN2 IPN
TC NTC TC NTC TC NTC
点击次数 0.30 -0.16 -0.17 -0.11 0.33 -0.04
滑动次数 -0.33 -0.18 0.06 -0.05 0.18 -0.06
缩放次数 0.56 -0.56 -0.20 -0.18 -0.41 0.41
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