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Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery  2018, Vol. 2 Issue (10): 65-76    DOI: 10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2018.0026
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Predicting Credit Risks of P2P Loans in China Based on Ensemble Learning Methods
Wei Cao,Can Li(),Tingting He,Weidong Zhu
School of Economics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230601, China
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Abstract  

[Objective] This paper examines several popular ensemble-learning methods with real-world data, aiming to find the most suitable way to monitor the P2P credit risks facing China. [Methods] We extracted the borrower’s features from five aspects, and identified the most remarkable ones with Random Forest method. Then, we compared the prediction models based on four ensemble-learning methods and five base classifiers. [Results] We found that the Rotation Forest method had the highest accuracy rate of 99.32% and the lowest error rate of 1.71% . Feature selection processing based on Random Forest could improve the performance of all related models significantly. [Limitations] The sample dataset needs to be expanded. [Conclusions] The proposed method could identify credit risks more effectively.

Key wordsEnsemble Learning      Feature Select      P2P Net Loan      Credit Risks     
Received: 09 January 2018      Published: 12 November 2018

Cite this article:

Wei Cao,Can Li,Tingting He,Weidong Zhu. Predicting Credit Risks of P2P Loans in China Based on Ensemble Learning Methods. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 2018, 2(10): 65-76.

URL:

http://manu44.magtech.com.cn/Jwk_infotech_wk3/EN/10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2018.0026     OR     http://manu44.magtech.com.cn/Jwk_infotech_wk3/EN/Y2018/V2/I10/65

变量类型 变量名 实际含义 变量数值化
因变量 label 借款违约与否 违约=1, 未违约=0
借款人特征信息 F1 年龄 20-25岁=0, 26-31岁=1, 32-37岁=2, 38-43岁=3, 44-49岁=4, 50岁及以上=5
F2 学历 高中及以下=0, 大专=1, 本科=2, 研究生=3
F3 婚姻状况 单身(包括未婚、离异和丧偶)=0, 已婚=1
F4 工作时间 空值=0, 1年及以下=2, 1-3年(含)=4, 3-5年(含)=6, 5年以上=8
F5 工作城市 东部=0, 中部=1, 西部=2
F6 公司行业 借款人所在公司所属行业*
F7 公司规模 空值=0, 10人以下=1, 10-100人=2, 100-500人=3, 500人以上=4
借款人财务信息 F8 收入 1000元以下=0, 1000-2000元=1, 2000-5000元=2, 5000-1000元=3, 10000=20000元=4, 20000-50000元=5, 50000元以上=6
F9 信用等级 HR=0, E=1, D=2, C=3, B=4, A=5, AA=6
F10 信用额度 信用额度做Min-Max标准化处理
F11 房产 有房产=1, 无房产=0
F12 车产 有车产=1, 无车产=0
F13 房贷 无房贷=1, 有房贷=0
F14 车贷 无车贷=1, 有车贷=0
借款人历史信息 F15 成功借款 借款人成功借款数量
F16 申请借款 借款人历史申请借款笔数
F17 逾期次数 借款人历史逾期次数
F18 严重逾期 存在严重逾期=1, 否则=0
借款特征 F19 借款金额 借款人预期借款金额做Min-Max标准化处理
F20 用途 借款人的借款用途**
F21 利率 借款年利率
F22 还款期限 借款期限, 按月衡量, 最短3个月, 最长36个月
F23 标的类型 机构担保标=0, 信用认证标=1, 实地认证标=2
平台认证
信息
F24 信用认证 借款人提供央行开具的个人征信报告, 认证通过=1, 其他=0
F25 身份认证 借款人提供身份证复印件认证身份信息, 认证通过=1, 其他=0
F26 工作认证 借款人提供工作证复印件或劳动合同, 认证通过=1, 其他=0
F27 收入认证 借款人提供收入证明或工资卡银行流水, 认证通过=1, 其他=0
变量类型 变量 含义
借款人特征信息 F1 年龄
F3 婚姻状况
借款人财务信息 F9 信用等级
F10 信用额度
借款人历史信息 F17 逾期次数
F18 严重逾期
借款特征 F19 借款金额
F22 还款期限
平台认证信息 F26 工作认证
F27 收入认证
预测为违约 预测为未违约
实际为违约 TP FN
实际为未违约 FP TN
集成算法 基分类器 准确率(%) Type-I error (%) AUC
A FS A FS A FS
Bagging LR 97.17 98.79 7.47 6.71 0.987 0.989
CART 98.08 98.58 6.32 2.87 0.936 0.999
C4.5 97.67 98.28 6.90 2.87 0.949 0.998
MLP 96.06 98.08 10.92 8.05 0.988 0.998
SVM 97.47 97.97 9.20 6.32 0.973 0.995
Boosting LR 97.98 98.48 5.74 3.45 0.984 0.898
CART 97.17 98.88 6.32 5.17 0.983 0.994
C4.5 97.17 98.07 5.17 4.02 0.995 0.996
MLP 97.27 98.88 8.05 2.30 0.995 0.999
SVM 97.97 98.28 8.62 4.59 0.954 0.971
Random
Subspace
LR 95.55 97.27 15.52 8.05 0.984 0.996
CART 96.46 97.17 4.59 2.87 0.940 0.981
C4.5 95.05 98.07 6.32 4.02 0.961 0.994
MLP 95.45 97.67 8.62 7.47 0.965 0.997
SVM 96.87 97.37 9.77 7.47 0.955 0.963
Rotation Forest LR 98.68 99.69 3.45 0.57 0.998 1.000
CART 98.48 99.19 3.45 1.15 0.992 0.998
C4.5 97.97 98.99 6.90 5.17 0.954 0.996
MLP 98.07 99.29 6.32 1.15 0.997 1.000
SVM 98.78 99.79 4.59 0.00 0.975 0.999
集成算法 基分类器 准确率(%) Type-I error (%) AUC
A FS A FS A FS
Bagging LR 98.65 99.46 6.03 2.59 0.990 0.998
CART 97.71 98.65 6.03 5.17 0.977 0.996
C4.5 97.71 98.65 12.93 5.17 0.992 0.998
MLP 96.36 98.38 10.34 5.17 0.992 0.998
SVM 98.52 98.92 5.17 1.72 0.974 0.994
Boosting LR 97.98 98.48 5.74 3.45 0.984 0.898
CART 97.71 99.59 5.17 1.72 0.984 0.999
C4.5 97.30 98.38 6.03 3.45 0.981 0.997
MLP 97.30 99.32 7.76 3.44 0.996 0.999
SVM 98.52 98.65 4.31 2.59 0.974 0.981
Random
Subspace
LR 97.71 98.79 7.41 4.31 0.988 0.994
CART 96.23 97.04 12.93 5.17 0.975 0.976
C4.5 96.36 97.57 12.07 3.45 0.957 0.997
MLP 96.77 97.57 12.93 4.31 0.993 0.995
SVM 97.98 98.25 7.76 4.31 0.956 0.994
Rotation Forest LR 98.65 99.59 4.31 0.86 0.998 1.000
CART 98.11 98.65 3.44 1.72 0.993 0.995
C4.5 98.65 99.05 6.03 3.45 0.985 0.999
MLP 97.84 99.46 7.76 2.59 0.995 0.999
SVM 98.92 99.73 4.31 1.72 0.976 1.000
集成算法 基分类器 准确率(%) Type-I error (%) AUC
A FS A FS A FS
Bagging LR 97.17 98.99 7.32 4.90 0.962 0.990
CART 97.17 98.78 8.53 6.09 0.968 0.994
C4.5 97.57 98.58 9.76 4.90 0.995 0.997
MLP 96.56 98.79 8.53 6.09 0.989 0.985
SVM 96.37 98.38 9.76 3.66 0.976 0.986
Boosting LR 96.56 97.57 13.41 6.09 0.966 0.995
CART 97.37 97.77 8.53 3.66 0.995 0.997
C4.5 95.14 97.36 8.53 4.90 0.972 0.980
MLP 97.37 98.58 9.76 6.09 0.993 0.996
SVM 97.37 98.18 7.32 3.66 0.982 0.990
Random Subspace LR 94.13 97.36 20.73 8.53 0.966 0.994
CART 96.56 96.96 14.63 9.76 0.940 0.997
C4.5 96.56 97.16 12.20 10.98 0.964 0.975
MLP 95.95 97.97 8.53 7.32 0.968 0.991
SVM 96.56 97.77 14.63 9.76 0.967 0.983
Rotation Forest LR 98.38 99.39 6.09 1.20 0.994 1.000
CART 97.57 99.19 6.09 1.20 0.992 0.996
C4.5 97.57 99.19 7.32 1.20 0.981 0.998
MLP 98.38 99.19 7.32 2.44 0.992 1.000
SVM 98.58 99.39 6.09 1.20 0.981 1.000
训练
测试比
Bagging Boosting Random Subspace Rotation Forest
A FS A FS A FS A FS
60:40 97.29 98.34 97.51 98.52 95.88 97.51 98.40 99.39
70:30 97.79 98.81 97.71 98.92 97.01 97.84 98.43 99.30
80:20 96.97 98.70 96.76 97.89 95.95 97.44 98.10 99.27
平均值 97.35 98.62 97.32 98.44 96.27 97.60 98.31 99.32
训练
测试比
Bagging Boosting Random Subspace Rotation Forest
A FS A FS A FS A FS
60:40 8.16 5.36 6.78 3.91 8.96 5.98 4.94 1.61
70:30 8.10 4.00 7.24 3.27 10.62 4.31 5.17 2.07
80:20 8.78 5.13 9.51 4.88 14.14 9.27 6.58 1.45
平均值 8.35 4.82 7.84 4.02 11.24 6.52 5.56 1.71
标准 Bagging Boosting Random Subspace Rotation
Forest
A FS A FS A FS A FS
准确率 6.00 2.67 6.33 2.50 8.00 5.67 3.83 1.00
Type-I error 6.33 3.33 6.33 2.00 8.00 5.00 4.00 1.00
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