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Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (1): 56-65    DOI: 10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2020.0981
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Consensus Mechanisms of Consortium Blockchain: A Survey
Leng Jidong1,Lv Xueqiang1,2(),Jiang Yang1,2,Li Guolin1,2
1Beijing Key Laboratory of Internet Culture and Digital Dissemination Research, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing 100101, China
2Sunego (Beijing) Technology Limited Company, Beijing 100036, China
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[Objective] This paper analyzes the application of Byzantine problem and reviews related research on the consensus mechanisms of consortium blockchain.[Coverage] We searched “consensus mechanisms” as keywords from the titles or topics of WoS, ResearchGate, arXiv and CNKI databases. A total of 74 papers were retrieved.[Methods] We reviewed the consensus mechanism and classification method of the blockchain. Then, we explored the applications of Byzantine problem, and discussed the strong and permissioned consensus mechanisms.[Results] We summarized the developments and ties of Byzantine problem, Brewer’s theorem, Byzantine system and Byzantine fault-tolerant mechanism. We also proposed the basic procedures and evaluation criteria for consensus mechanisms of consortium blockchain. Finally, we divided the consensus mechanism into four categories based on security and time delay.[Limitations] This paper did not cover all consensus mechanisms for consortium blockchain.[Conclusions] The research on consensus mechanism promotes the implementation of blockchain, which could be improved from fault tolerance, communication delay and conversion efficiency in the future studies.

Key wordsPermissioned Consensus Mechanism      Consortium Blockchain      Blockchain      Byzantine Problem      Classification of Consensus Mechanism      Strong Consensus     
Received: 07 October 2020      Published: 05 February 2021
ZTFLH:  TP309  
Fund:The work is supported by the National Social Science Fund of China Grant No(61671070)
Corresponding Authors: Lv Xueqiang     E-mail:

Cite this article:

Leng Jidong,Lv Xueqiang,Jiang Yang,Li Guolin. Consensus Mechanisms of Consortium Blockchain: A Survey. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 2021, 5(1): 56-65.

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共识机制 核心算法 敌手上限
SBFT[18] BFT 1/3
Pa La[23] BFT 1/3
Peer Census[24] PoW110 + PBFT 1/4
ByzCoin[25] PoW + PBFT 1/4
Solida[26] PoW + BFT 1/3
Hybrid Consensus[27] PoW + BFT 1/3
Thunderella[28] PoW 1/4 or 1/2
Algorand[16] PoS + BFT 1/3
Omni Ledger[30] PoW + PBFT 1/4
Chainspace[31] PoW + BFT 1/4
RapidChain[32] PoW + BFT 1/4
Consensus Mechanism with Strong Consensus
共识机制 基础类 快速类 高容错类 高效类
SBFT[18] 1
PoET[44] 1
Yac[45] 1
RBFT[46] 1
PaLa[23] 1
Paxos[47] 1
DPoS[12] 1
PBFT[48] 1
DBFT[49] 1
RPCA[51] 1
Tendermint[17] 1
Raft[15] 1
Scalable BFT[52] 1
Q/U[53] 1
Quorum[54] 1
HQ[55] 1
CBASE[56] 1
Zyzzyva[57] 1
CTFG[58] 1
Ouroboros[59] 1
FCP[60] 1
SCP[52] 1
Classification of Consortium Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms
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