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Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (2): 70-82    DOI: 10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2020.0666
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Health Information Readability Affects Users’ Cognitive Load and Information Processing: An Eye-Tracking Study
Ke Qing(),Ding Songyun,Qin Qin
School of Information Management,Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
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[Objective] This paper analyzes the impacts of health informtion readability on users’ cognitive load and information processing. [Methods] We created two sets of health education webpages with high and low readability as experimental materials for the eye tracking tests. Then, we explored the mediating effects of cognitive load and the moderating effects of gender and task complexity. [Results] We found that readability posed significant impacts on saccade distance, as well as the total fixation duration and counts. Readability also significantly influenced the total duration of completed tasks and the accuracy of search results. Task complexity moderated the influence of readability on the time of first fixation. [Limitations] We did not consider the subjective factors of readability and the participants were mainly college students. A self-report method should be included in future studies. [Conclusions] This study promotes user information behavior research to the level of information processing. Improving readability visually could reduce users’ cognitive load, promote utilization efficiency of information, and optimize user searching experience.

Key wordsReadability      Cognitive Load      Information Processing      Health Information      Eye-Tracking     
Received: 08 July 2020      Published: 11 March 2021
ZTFLH:  G206  
Fund:Social Science Fund of Jiangsu Province(20TQA003);One Hundred Projects” for the Double First-Class Construction of Humanities and Social Science of Nanjing University(2018047)
Corresponding Authors: Ke Qing ORCID:0000-0002-6300-2682     E-mail:

Cite this article:

Ke Qing, Ding Songyun, Qin Qin. Health Information Readability Affects Users’ Cognitive Load and Information Processing: An Eye-Tracking Study. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 2021, 5(2): 70-82.

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R 任务复杂性 实验任务
高(解释整合观点、信息) 材料A:文中提到的国家食药总局检出的违禁化学药成分有哪些?副作用是什么?
低(直接提取信息) 材料B:文中提到的元宵检测指标有哪些?
高(解释整合观点、信息) 材料C:蔬菜生吃更有营养吗?为什么?
低(直接提取信息) 材料D:文中提到的养胃雷区有哪些?
Experimental Task List
眼动指标 R 任务复杂性 性别
男性 女性
总注视时间/s 65.28(±37.21) 40.28(±28.50) 69.05(±40.46) 36.51(±18.42) 47.48(±32.75) 57.42(±37.04)
注视点个数 309.02(±163.10) 197.03(±133.63) 332.12(±176.02) 173.93(±84.43) 225.00(±145.58) 277.55(±166.72)
首次进入时间/s 35.32(±15.63) 5.91(±5.43) 24.11(±21.44) 17.12(±15.14) 20.41(±18.92) 20.79(±18.86)
左瞳孔直径变化/mm -0.24(±0.51) -0.13(±0.51) -0.19(±0.53) -0.19(±0.50) -0.22(±0.48) -0.17(±0.55)
右瞳孔直径变化/mm -0.23(±0.52) -0.25(±1.25) -0.19(±0.54) -0.31(±1.25) -0.21(±0.47) -0.28(±1.24)
眼跳距离/mm 2.72(±0.73) 2.86(±0.68) 2.73(±0.66) 3.00(±0.68) 2.82(±0.74) 2.91(±0.63)
任务的总时长/s 108.91(±50.15) 69.21(±42.17) 112.45(±56.22) 65.67(±28.66) 81.31(±43.91) 95.84(±54.66)
准确性 3.66(±0.77) 3.97(±0.26) 3.73(±0.78) 3.90(±0.29) 3.78(±0.62) 3.84(±0.56)
Descriptive Analysis of Experimental Results
眼动指标 F P
总注视时间 17.061*** 0.000
注视点个数 16.924*** 0.000
首次进入时间 189.624*** 0.000
左瞳孔直径变化 1.378 0.243
右瞳孔直径变化 0.020 0.887
眼跳距离 5.408* 0.022
任务的总时长 22.018*** 0.000
准确性 8.701** 0.004
Significance Test Results of Readability
因素 总注视时间 注视点个数 首次进入时间
可读性(R) 17.072*** 0.000 17.203*** 0.000 185.300*** 0.000
性别 2.701 0.103 3.766 0.055 0.031 0.860
交叉项 0.001 0.980 0.031 0.860 0.053 0.819
Multivariate Analysis of Variance Based on Readability and Gender
因素 总注视时间 注视点个数 首次进入时间
可读性(R) 22.387*** 0.000 23.475*** 0.000 212.817*** 0.000
任务复杂性 37.937*** 0.000 46.840*** 0.000 12.001** 0.001
交叉项 0.901 0.344 0.835 0.363 4.432* 0.037
Multivariate Analysis of Variance Based on Readability and Task Complexity
模型 因变量 非标准化系数 标准系数 t P
B 标准误差 β
M3:R→认知负荷 总注视时间 13.864 2.235 .496 6.203 .000
注视点个数 64.023 9.959 .509 6.429 .000
首次进入时间 10.383 .983 .697 10.563 .000
M1:R→信息加工绩效 眼跳距离 -.130 .048 -.242 -2.708 .008
任务总时长 20.822 3.122 .523 6.670 .000
准确性 -.141 .041 -.301 -3.435 .001
Regression Analysis of Readability on Cognitive Load and Information Processing Performance (M1 and M3)
因变量 模型 非标准化系数 标准系数 t P
B 标准误差 β
眼跳距离 R -.061 0.054 -.113 -1.124 .263
总注视时间 -.005 .002 -.260* 2.588 .011
R -.070 .055 -.129 -1.265 .208
注视点个数 -.001 .000 -.221* -2.162 .033
R -.040 .066 -.074 -.599 .550
首次进入时间 -.009 .004 -.241 -1.959 .053
任务总时长 R 2.555 1.193 .064* 2.133 .035
总注视时间 1.318 .043 .926*** 30.754 .000
R 1.490 .979 .037 1.522 .131
注视点个数 .302 .008 .954*** 38.775 .000
R 10.685 4.161 .269* 2.568 .011
首次进入时间 .976 .279 .365*** 3.494 .001
准确性 R -.115 .047 -.245* -2.425 .017
总注视时间 -.002 .002 -.114 -1.131 .260
R -.129 .048 -.275 -2.687 .008
注视点个数 .000 .000 -.052 -.509 .612
R -.051 .056 -.110 -.911 .364
首次进入时间 -.009 .004 .275* -2.288 .024
Hierarchical Regression of Readability and Cognitive Load on Information Processing Performance (M2)
检验关系 具体假设 结论
在线健康信息可读性(R值)与用户的认知负荷 H1a 支持
H1b 支持
H1c 支持
H1d 拒绝
在线健康信息的可读性(R值)与用户的信息加工绩效 H2a 支持
H2b 支持
H2c 支持
认知负荷的中介作用 H3a 部分支持
H3b 支持
H3c 部分支持
性别和任务复杂性的调节作用 H4a 拒绝
H4b 部分支持
Impacts of Readability on Information Processing
Impacts of Readability of Health Information on Users’ Information Processing Model
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