Please wait a minute...
Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (1): 36-55    DOI: 10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2020.0906
Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Review of Cultural Heritage Crowdsourcing in the Domain of Digital Humanities
Zhao Yuxiang(),Lian Jingwen
School of Economics & Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Download: PDF (1059 KB)   HTML ( 27
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

[Objective] This paper systematically reviews the development of research and practice of the cultural heritage crowdsourcing in the domain of digital humanities.[Coverage] We used various sources such as SSCI, SCIE, EI, A&HCI, CPCI-S, CPCI-SSH, Google Scholar, CNKI, Wanfang Data and VIP to search literatures with the keywords “cultural heritage crowdsourcing”, “crowdsourcing AND digital humanities”, “cultural heritage AND collaboration”, “cultural heritage AND user generated content”, “GLAM AND crowdsourcing” etc. We then collected 110 representative literatures in conjunction with topic screening and backward and forward approach.[Methods] First, we classified the connotation and extension of cultural heritage crowdsourcing and made a loosely defined concept. Then, we investigated the current status of research and practice of cultural heritage crowdsourcing from three key elements of data resources, digital technology and platform system.[Results] This paper explores the concept of cultural heritage crowdsourcing, proposes the classification of cultural heritage crowdsourcing projects, explores the data life cycle and digital technology classification system of cultural heritage crowdsourcing, and sorts out the relevant research results and experience in the construction and operation management of cultural heritage crowdsourcing platform.[Limitations] Future research will further refine the integrated framework of the cultural heritage crowdsourcing model for the research and practice of digital humanities.[Conclusions] Cultural heritage crowdsourcing is a new model in the field of public cultural services in recent years in terms of data collection and analysis, construction of information resources and innovation of knowledge services. It is a new campaign in response to the deep integration of technology and culture in the digital era, and also a new direction for digital humanities exploration in the discipline of library, information and archives management.

Key wordsCultural Heritage Crowdsourcing      Cultural Heritage Institutions      Knowledge Innovation Service      Cultural Big Data      Digital Humanities     
Received: 15 September 2020      Published: 05 February 2021
ZTFLH:  G315  
Corresponding Authors: Zhao Yuxiang     E-mail:

Cite this article:

Zhao Yuxiang,Lian Jingwen. Review of Cultural Heritage Crowdsourcing in the Domain of Digital Humanities. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 2021, 5(1): 36-55.

URL:     OR

项目名称 发起者 主要任务 任务对象 文化遗产资源类型 参与者
Australian Newspaper Digitisation 澳大利亚国家图书馆 修订 澳大利亚报纸 馆藏资源 业余爱好者、家庭历史学家和对澳大利亚历史感兴趣的历史学家
What’s on the Menu?[21] 美国纽约公共图书馆 转录 4万份历史悠久的纽约餐厅菜单 馆藏资源 普通公众
盛宣怀档案抄录项目[22] 上海图书馆 转录、注释 盛宣怀档案手稿 馆藏资源 普通公众
The National Archives Transcription Pilot[23] 美国国家档案局 转录、标记和注释 300多份手写或印刷的历史文件(内战间谍信、总统记录、投票权请愿书和逃亡奴隶案件档案等) 馆藏资源 普通公众
Click! A Crowd-Curated Exhibition [24] 美国布鲁克林艺术博物馆 评估和筛选(共同策展) 与改变布鲁克林面貌主题相关的照片 馆藏资源 普通公众
Steven.Museum[25] 多个美国与英国的艺术博物馆 添加标签 博物馆艺术藏品 馆藏资源 普通公众
Open Plaques[26] 社区/公众 收集照片和信息,并进行分类 世界各地建筑物和地标上的纪念性牌匾和历史标记 文化景观 普通公众
Ghostsigns[27] Sam Roberts 收集照片和信息 澳大利亚相关建筑上的手绘广告 文化景观 拥有相机和电子邮件的人
The Traditional Stone Bridge of Plaka[28] 雅典国立技术大学 收集图像或视频,并制作3D模型 普拉卡石桥 文化景观 普通公众、科学家和工程师
Yleisradio Conflict Heritage[29] Crowdsourcing 芬兰广播公司Yleisradio 标记、描述、提供照片或评论 二战战场以外其他发生冲突的地点 文化遗址 普通公众
Nikkil? Memories[30] 芬兰西波市市政当局 收集与人们的记忆、经验和价值观相关的当地知识 当地人对Nikkil?的老建筑和方志的个体及社会记忆 非物质文化遗产资源 普通公众
Examples and Classification Characteristics of Cultural Heritage Crowdsourcing Projects
Classification of Cultural Heritage Crowdsourcing Projects
Knowledge Discovery Oriented Data Lifecycle for Cultural Heritage Crowdsourcing
Digital Technology Classification System for Cultural Heritage Crowdsourcing Projects
平台类型 平台特征 典型项目
根据项目特点完全自主开发,独立性高、针对性强,但成本相对较高。 Australian Newspaper Digitisation、What’s on the Menu?、The Smithsonian’s Field Book Project、盛宣怀档案抄录等
基于开源软件开发或基于已有平台修改建设,成本相对较低、成熟度较高、敏捷性和开放性较强。 Edvard Munch’s Writings、Transcribe Bentham、DIY History、The Louisville Leader Transcription Project等
通用平台 通常为适用于众多项目的门户网站和社交媒体平台,成本低、知名度高,但功能受限、针对性弱。 Old Weather、Shakespeare’s World、The Frederick Douglass Diary、the Library of Congress Photos on Flickr Pilot Project等
Platform Classification of Cultural Heritage Crowdsourcing
[1] Ridge M . From Tagging to Theorizing: Deepening Engagement with Cultural Heritage Through Crowdsourcing[J]. Curator: The Museum Journal, 2013,56(4):435-450.
[2] Daniels C, Holtze T L, Howard R I , et al. Community as Resource: Crowdsourcing Transcription of an Historic Newspaper[J]. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 2014,26(1):36-48.
[3] Howe J . The Rise of Crowdsourcing[J]. Wired, 2006,14(6):176-183.
[4] Zhao Y, Zhu Q . Evaluation on Crowdsourcing Research: Current Status and Future Direction[J]. Information Systems Frontiers, 2014,16(3):417-434.
[5] Holley R . Crowdsourcing: How and Why Should Libraries Do It?[J]. D-Lib Magazine, 2010,16(3/4):1-21.
[6] Oomen J, Aroyo L. Crowdsourcing in the Cultural Heritage Domain: Opportunities and Challenges[C]// Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Communities and Technologies. New York, United States: Association for Computing Machinery, 2011: 138-149.
[7] Zhao Y, Hu X, Wei K . Crowdsourcing and Collaboration in Digital Humanities[J]. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 2020,72(2):149-157.
[8] Alam S L, MacKrell D, Rizvi S M U. Crowdsourcing Travel Experience: A Case Study of User Participation on the Tourism Australia Facebook Page[C]// Proceedings of the 7th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Guimaraes, Portugal. Association for Information Systems, 2012: 1-10.
[9] Brabham D C, Ribisl K M, Kirchner T R , et al. Crowdsourcing Applications for Public Health[J]. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2014,46(2):179-187.
doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.016 pmid: 24439353
[10] Ai T, Yang W . The Detection of Transport Land-Use Data Using Crowdsourcing Taxi Trajectory[J]. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 2016,41(B8):785-788.
[11] Terras M . Crowdsourcing in the Digital Humanities[A]// Schreibman S, Siemens R, Unsworth J. A New Companion to Digital Humanities[M]. The 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2015: 420-439.
[12] Proctor N . Crowdsourcing—An Introduction: From Public Goods to Public Good[J]. Curator the Museum Journal, 2013,56(1):105-106.
[13] Ridge M. Citizen History and Its Discontents[C]// Proceedings of the 2014 IHR Digital History Seminar. Humanities Commons, 2014: 1-13.
[14] Owens T . Digital Cultural Heritage and the Crowd[J]. Curator: The Museum Journal, 2013,56(1):121-130.
[15] Ridge M . Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage[M]. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014: 1-13.
[16] Severson S, Sauve J . Crowding the Library: How and Why Libraries are Using Crowdsourcing to Engage the Public[J]. Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 2019,14(1):1-18.
[17] Dawson R . Crowdsourcing Landscape [EB/OL]. [2020-08-12].
[18] Zarndt F . Putting the World’s Cultural Heritage Online with Crowdsourcing, Bibliotekovedenie (Library and Information Science), 2013(1):76-84.
[19] 李书宁, 曾姗 . 国外图书馆数字馆藏众包建设实践调查与分析[J]. 图书情报工作, 2014,58(23):83-90.
[19] ( Li Shuning, Zeng Shan . Investigation and Analysis of Crowdsourcing of Library Digital Collection Aboard[J]. Library and Information Service, 2014,58(23):83-90.)
[20] 付跃安 . 数字图书馆影像资源众包文本建设研究[J]. 图书馆杂志, 2017,36(7):60-65.
[20] ( Fu Yuean . Crowdsourcing Text-building of Picture Resource in Digital Libraries[J]. Library Journal, 2017,36(7):60-65.)
[21] Lascarides M, Vershbow B . What’s on the Menu? Crowdsourcing at the New York Public Library[A]// Ridge M. Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage[M]. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014: 113-137.
[22] 张轩慧, 赵宇翔, 宋小康 . 数字人文类公众科学项目持续发展阶段的公众参与动因探索——基于盛宣怀档案抄录案例的扎根分析[J]. 图书情报知识, 2018(3): 16-25,77.
[22] ( Zhang Xuanhui, Zhao Yuxiang, Song Xiaokang . Exploring Participants’ Motivations in Sustained Stage of Citizen Science Projects in Digital Humanities Domain:A Case Study on Transcribe Sheng[J]. Document, Information & Knowledge, 2018(3):16-25,77.)
[23] Noll A G. Crowdsourcing Transcriptions of Archival Materials[C]// Proceedings of the 2013 Graduate History Conference. 2013: 1-33.
[24] Bernstein S . Crowdsourcing in Brooklyn[A]// Ridge M. Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage[M]. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014: 17-43.
[25] Chun S, Cherry R, Hiwiller D, et al. Steve. Museum: An Ongoing Experiment in Social Tagging, Folksonomy, and Museums[C]// Proceedings of the Museums and the Web 2006, Albuquerque, USA. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, 2006.
[26] Beale N . How Community Archaeology Can Make Use of Open Data to Achieve Further Its Objectives[J]. World Archaeology, 2012,44(4):612-633.
[27] Carletti L. A Grassroots Initiative for Digital Preservation of Ephemeral Artefacts: The Ghostsigns Project[C]// Proceedings of the 2011 Digital Engagement Conference, Newcastle, UK. 2011: 15-17.
[28] Stathopoulou E K, Georgopoulos A, Panagiotopoulos G , et al. Crowdsourcing Lost Cultural Heritage[J]. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 2015: 295-300.
[29] Seitsonen O . Crowdsourcing Cultural Heritage: Public Participation and Conflict Legacy in Finland[J]. Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage, 2017,4(2):115-130.
[30] Nummi P . Crowdsourcing Local Knowledge with PPGIS and Social Media for Urban Planning to Reveal Intangible Cultural Heritage[J]. Urban Planning, 2018,3(1):100-115.
doi: 10.17645/up.v3i1.1266
[31] Terras M . Digital Curiosities: Resource Creation via Amateur Digitization[J]. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 2010,4(25):425-438.
[32] Zhang X, Song S, Zhao Y, et al. Motivations of Volunteers in the Transcribe Sheng Project: A Grounded Theory Approach[C]// Proceedings of the 2018 Association for Information Science and Technology, Vancouver, Canada. New York: Wiley, 2018,55(1):951-953.
[33] Concilio G, Vitellio I. Co-creating Intangible Cultural Heritage by Crowd-mapping: The Case of Mappi[na][C]// Proceedings of the 2nd International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry Leveraging a Better Tomorrow (RTSI), Bologna, Italy. IEEE, 2016: 1-5.
[34] 联合国教育、科学及文化组织. 保护世界文化和自然遗产公约[EB/OL]. [2020-08-16]. .
[34] ( United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization. Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage[EB/OL]. [2020-08-16].
[35] 联合国教育、科学及文化组织. 保护非物质文化遗产公约[EB/OL]. [2020-08-16]. .
[35] ( United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage[EB/OL]. [2020-08-16].
[36] Granell E, Romero V, Martinezhinarejos C D. Multimodality , Interactivity, Crowdsourcing for Document Transcription[J]. Computational Intelligence, 2018,34(2):398-419.
[37] Bujari A, Ciman M, Gaggi O , et al. Using Gamification to Discover Cultural Heritage Locations from Geo-Tagged Photos[J]. Ubiquitous Computing, 2017,21(2):235-252.
[38] Goodchild M F, Glennon J A . Crowdsourcing Geographic Information for Disaster Response: A Research Frontier[J]. International Journal of Digital Earth, 2010,3(3):231-241.
[39] Dhonju H K, Xiao W, Mills J P , et al. Share Our Cultural Heritage (SOCH): Worldwide 3D Heritage Reconstruction and Visualization via Web and Mobile GIS[J]. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, 2018,7(9):360.
[40] 曾熙, 谭旭, 王晓光 . 文化遗产大数据二维分类框架研究[J]. 图书情报知识, 2020(1):84-93.
[40] ( Zeng Xi, Tan Xu, Wang Xiaoguang . Two-Dimensional Classification Framework for Cultural Heritage Big Data, Documentation, Information & Knowledge, 2020(1):84-93.)
[41] Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). Guide to Social Science Data Preparation and Archiving: Best Practice Throughout the Data Life Cycle[M]. The 5th Edition. Ann Arbor: ICPSR, 2012: 7-8.
[42] 胡卉, 吴鸣 . 嵌入科研工作流与数据生命周期的数据素养能力研究[J]. 图书与情报, 2016(4):125-137.
[42] ( Hu Hui, Wu Ming . Core Competencies of Data Literacy Embedded in Research Workflow and Data Lifecycle[J]. Library & Information, 2016(4):125-137.)
[43] 丁宁, 马浩琴 . 国外高校科学数据生命周期管理模型比较研究及借鉴[J]. 图书情报工作, 2013,57(6):18-22.
[43] ( Ding Ning, Ma Haoqin . The Comparative Research and Reference on the Scientific Data Lifecycle Management in Foreign Universities[J]. Library and Information Service, 2013,57(6):18-22.)
[44] 夏翠娟 . 面向人文研究的“数据基础设施”建设——试论图书馆学对数字人文的方法论贡献[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2020,46(3):24-37.
[44] ( Xia Cuijuan . The Construction of “Data Infrastructure” for Humanities Research: The Methodological Contribution of Library Science to Digital Humanities[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2020,46(3):24-37.)
[45] Kaminski J, Echavarria K R, Arnold D, et al. Insourcing, Outsourcing and Crowdsourcing 3D Collection Formation: Perspectives for Cultural Heritage Sites[C]// Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Brighton, UK. Vienna: Eurographics Association, 2012: 81-88.
[46] Pradani W, Hasibuan Z A. A Proposed Crowdsourcing Engine for Indonesian Cultural Heritage[C]// Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Computing (ICIC), Palembang, Indonesia. Piscataway: IEEE, 2018: 1-6.
[47] Mousouris S, Styliaras G. Implementing Digital Cultural Heritage Map[C]// Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Intelligence Systems and Applications. Piscataway: IEEE, 2014: 1-6.
[48] Floch J, Jiang S. One Place, Many Stories Digital Storytelling for Cultural Heritage Discovery in the Landscape[C]// Proceedings of the 2015 Digital Heritage, Granada, Spain. Piscataway: IEEE, 2015: 503-510.
[49] Blaser L . Old Weather: Approaching Collections from a Different Angle[A]// Ridge M. Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage[M]. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014: 45-56.
[50] Parent G, Eskenazi M. Toward Better Crowdsourced Transcription: Transcription of a Year of the Let's Go Bus Information System Data[C]// Proceedings of the 2010 Spoken Language Technology Workshop. Piscataway: IEEE, 2010: 312-317.
[51] Granell E, Martinez-Hinarejos C D. A Multimodal Crowdsourcing Framework for Transcribing Historical Handwritten Documents[C]// Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, Vienna, Austria. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2016: 157-163.
[52] Leon S. Build , Analyse, Generalise: Community Transcription of the Papers of the War Department and the Development of Scripto[A]//Ridge M. Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage[M]. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014: 89-111.
[53] Firmani D, Maiorino M, Merialdo P, et al. Towards Knowledge Discovery from the Vatican Secret Archives. In Codice Ratio - Episode 1: Machine Transcription of the Manuscripts[C]// Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining, London, UK. New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2018: 263-272.
[54] Okinina N, Nicolas L, Lyding V, et al. Transc&Anno: A Graphical Tool for the Transcription and On-the-Fly Annotation of Handwritten Documents[C]// Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018), Miyazaki, Japan. European Language Resources Association (ELRA), 2018: 701-705.
[55] Suissa O, Elmalech A, Zhitomirsky-Geffet M . Toward the Optimized Crowdsourcing Strategy for OCR Post-correction[J]. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 2019,72(2):179-197.
[56] Alam S L, Campbell J. Crowdsourcing Motivations in a Not-for-profit GLAM Context: The Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program[C]// Proceedings of the 23rd Australasian Conference on Information Systems. ACIS, 2012: 1-11.
[57] Chrons O, Sundell S. Digitalkoot: Making Old Archives Accessible Using Crowdsourcing[C]//Proceedings of the 11th AAAI Conference on Human Computation. AAAI Press, 2011: 20-25.
[58] Trant J, Bruce W. Investigating Social Tagging and Folksonomy in Art Museums with Steve. Museum[C]// Proceedings of Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop at WWW 2006, Edinburgh, Scotland. 2006: 1-6.
[59] Springer M, Dulabahn B, Michel P , et al. For the Common Good: The Library of Congress Flickr Pilot Project[M]. Washington: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, 2008: 1-50.
[60] Estrada L M, Hildebrand M, de Boer V, et al. Time-based Tags for Fiction Movies: Comparing Experts to Novices Using a Video Labeling Game[J]. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 2017,68(2):348-364.
[61] von Ahn L, Dabbish L. Labeling Images with a Computer Game[C]// Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2004: 319-326.
[62] Oosterman J, Nottamkandath A, Dijkshoorn C, et al. Crowdsourcing Knowledge-intensive Tasks in Cultural Heritage[C]// Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Conference on Web Science. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2014: 267-268.
[63] Hansen D L, Schone P, Corey D L, et al. Quality Control Mechanisms for Crowdsourcing: Peer Review, Arbitration, & Expertise at Familysearch Indexing[C]// Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2013: 649-660.
[64] Fleurbaay E, Eveleigh A. Crowdsourcing: Prone to Error?[C]// Proceedings of the 2012 International Council on Archives Conference. 2012(8):1-10.
[65] Djupdahl M, Eskor E, Jonsson Ö, et al. Review of Crowdsourcing Projects and How They Relate to Linked Open Data Authors[R/OL]. ( 2013- 02- 06). [2020-08-27]. .
[66] Matsunaga A, Mast A R, Fortes J A , et al. Workforce-efficient Consensus in Crowdsourced Transcription of Biocollections Information[J]. Future Generation Computer Systems, 2016,56(C):526-536.
[67] Nottamkandath A, Oosterman J, Ceolin D, et al. Automated Evaluation of Crowdsourced Annotations in the Cultural Heritage Domain[C]// Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web, Riva del Garda, Italy., 2014: 25-36.
[68] Pramartha C, Davis J G, Kuan K K Y,. Digital Preservation of Cultural Heritage: An Ontology-Based Approach[C]// Proceedings of the 28th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, Hobart, Australia. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press, 2017.
[69] 夏翠娟, 张磊, 贺晨芝 . 面向知识服务的图书馆数字人文项目建设:方法,流程与技术, 图书馆论坛, 2018(1):1-9.
[69] ( Xia Cuijuan, Zhang Lei, He Chenzhi . Construction of Library Digital Humanities Projects for Knowledge Services: Method, Process and Technology, Library Tribune, 2018(1):1-9.)
[70] 冯惠玲, 梁继红, 马林青 . 台州古村落数字记忆平台建设研究——以高迁古村为例, 中国档案, 2019(5):74-75.
[70] ( Feng Huiling, Liang Jihong, Ma Linqing . Research on the Construction of Digital Memory Platform in Taizhou Ancient Village——A Case Study of Gaoqian Ancient Village, China Archives, 2019(5):74-75.)
[71] 刘炜, 叶鹰 . 数字人文的技术体系与理论结构探讨[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2017,43(5):32-41.
[71] ( Liu Wei, Ye Ying . Exploring Technical System and Theoretical Structure of Digital Humanities[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2017,43(5):32-41.)
[72] 张喆昱, 张磊 . 记忆机构的开放数据建设和数字化服务转型[J]. 图书馆论坛, 2020,40(5):21-26.
[72] ( Zhang Zheyu, Zhang Lei . Open Data Construction and Digital Service Transition Patterns of GLAMs[J]. Library Tribune, 2020,40(5):21-26.)
[73] Iranowska J. Greater Good , Empowerment and Democratization? Affordances of the Crowdsourcing Transcription Projects[J]. Museum & Society, 2019,17(2):210-228.
[74] Saxton G D, Oh O, Kishore R . Rules of Crowdsourcing: Models, Issues, and Systems of Control[J]. Information Systems Management, 2013,30(1):2-20.
[75] Echavarria K R, Kaminski J, Arnold D. 3D Heritage on Mobile Devices: Scenarios and Opportunities[C]// Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Progress in Cultural Heritage Preservation, Lemessos, Cyprus. Berlin Heidelberg:Springer-Verlag, 2012: 149-158.
[76] 张凡 . 面向众包数据库的隐私保护技术研究[D]. 武汉:华中科技大学, 2016.
[76] ( Zhang Fan . Research on Privacy Protection for Crowdsourcing Database[D]. Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 2016.)
[77] Celis L E, Reddy S P, Singh I P, et al. Assignment Techniques for Crowdsourcing Sensitive Tasks[C]// Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing. New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2016: 836-847.
[78] Haklay M, Weber P . OpenStreetMap: User-Generated Street Maps[J]. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 2008,7(4):12-18.
[79] Dangelo A, Ricciardi L, Gugliermetti L. Smart City and Cultural Heritage: Resilience Trought Crowdsourcing Involvement[C]// Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), Palermo, Italy. Piscataway: IEEE, 2018: 1-6.
[80] Levoy M . The Digital Michelangelo Project: 3D Scanning of Large Statues[J]. Computer Graphics Forum, 1999,18(3):13-16.
[81] Fornés A, Lladós J, Mas J, et al. A Bimodal Crowdsourcing Platform for Demographic Historical Manuscripts[C]// Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Digital Access to Textual Cultural Heritage, Madrid, Spain. New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2014: 103-108.
[82] Zhang X, Wu Y, Huang L, et al. Expertise-Aware Truth Analysis and Task Allocation in Mobile Crowdsourcing[C]// Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems(ICDCS), Atlanta, GA, USA. Piscataway: IEEE, 2017: 922-932.
[83] Tsai T H, Lee L C . Location-based Augmented Reality for Exploration of Cultural Heritage[J]. ICIC Express Letters, Part B: Applications, 2017,8(12):1577-1583.
[84] 姚啸华, 贺晨芝, 徐孝娟 , 等. 面向数字人文的图书馆众包平台构建研究——以上海图书馆历史文献众包平台为例[J]. 图书馆杂志, 2020,39(6):105-112.
[84] ( Yao Xiaohua, He Chenzhi, Xu Xiaojuan , et al. Construction of Crowdsourcing Platform of the Library for Digital Humanities: A Case Study of the Crowdsourcing Platform for Digital Historical Documents of Shanghai Library[J]. Library Journal, 2020,39(6):105-112.)
[85] 冯惠玲 . 数字记忆: 文化记忆的数字宫殿[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2020,46(3):4-16.
[85] ( Feng Huiling . Digital Memory: A Digital Palace for Cultural Memory[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2020,46(3):4-16.)
[86] 周纲, 孙宇 . 开创性的下一代图书馆服务平台解决方案——FOLIO[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2020,46(1):79-91.
[86] ( Zhou Gang, Sun Yu . Innovative Solution of Next Generation Library Service Platform: FOLIO[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2020,46(1):79-91.)
[87] 张卫东, 韩效东 . 图博档数字资源的众包模式研究[J]. 情报理论与实践, 2016,39(10):74-79.
[87] ( Zhang Weidong, Han Xiaodong . Research on the Crowdsourcing Mode of the Digital Resources in LAM[J]. Information Studies: Theory & Application, 2016,39(10):74-79.)
[88] Moyle M, Tonra J, Wallace V . Manuscript Transcription by Crowdsourcing: Transcribe Bentham[J]. The Liber Quarterly, 2011: 347-356.
[89] Frommholz I, Graves D, Liu H , et al. Great War Stories Told by the People: Crowdsourced Cultural Heritage in Digital Museums[C]// Proceedings of the 14th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, London, UK. Piscataway: IEEE Press, 2014: 419-420.
[90] 刘炜 . 未来已来!拥抱一个全新的开放平台时代[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2020,46(1):77-78.
[90] ( Liu Wei . Future is Coming! Embracing a New Open Platform Era[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2020,46(1):77-78.)
[91] 郭利敏, 张磊 . FOLIO的技术选型与运营模式研究[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2020,46(1):92-98.
[91] ( Guo Limin, Zhang Lei . Technology Selection and Operation Mode of FOLIO[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2020,46(1):92-98.)
[92] 许磊, 夏翠娟 . 第三代图书馆服务平台的元数据管理——以FOLIO的Codex方案为例[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2020,46(1):99-113.
[92] ( Xu Lei, Xia Cuijuan . Metadata Management of the Third Generation Library Service Platform: A Case Study of FOLIO Codex[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2020,46(1):99-113.)
[93] 孙宇, 周纲 . 基于微服务架构的资源发现系统平台构建研究[J]. 中国图书馆学报, 2020,46(1):114-124.
[93] ( Sun Yu, Zhou Gang . The Construction of Resource Discovery System Platform Based on Microservices Architecture[J]. Journal of Library Science in China, 2020,46(1):114-124.)
[94] Karl R, Roberts J C, Wilson A T , et al. Picture This! Community-Led Production of Alternative Views of the Heritage of Gwynedd[J]. Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage, 2014,1(1):23-36.
[95] Alam S L, Campbell J . Temporal Motivations of Volunteers to Participate in Cultural Crowdsourcing Work[J]. Information Systems Research, 2017,28(4):744-759.
[96] Cushing A L . “We’ve No Problem Inheriting That Knowledge on to Other People”: Exploring the Characteristics of Motivation for Attending a Participatory Archives Event[J]. Library & Information Science Research, 2018,40(2):135-143.
[97] Zhang X, Chen S, Zhao Y C , et al. The Influences of Social Value Orientation and Domain Knowledge on Crowdsourcing Manuscript Transcription: An Empirical Investigation of the Transcribe-Sheng Project[J]. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 2020,72(2):219-242.
[98] 韩文婷, 宋士杰, 赵宇翔 , 等. 数字人文类众包抄录平台中任务绩效的影响因素研究——基于任务复杂度与领域知识视角, 图书与情报, 2019(3):73-84.
[98] ( Han Wenting, Song Shijie, Zhao Yuxiang , et al. Influence Factors of Task Performance on Crowdsourcing Transcription Platform in Digital Humanity Domain: Perspectives of Task Complexity and Domain Knowledge, Library and Information, 2019(3):73-84.)
[99] 詹逸珂 . 数字人文项目前端历史档案资源众包探析:特征、风险及其控制, 山西档案, 2020(2):77-84.
[99] ( Zhan Yike . An Analysis of Historical Archive Resources Crowdsourcing at the Front Side of the DH Projects: Features, Risks and Their Control, Shanxi Archives, 2020(2):77-84.)
[100] Zhou X, Tang J, Zhao Y C , et al. Effects of Feedback Design and Dispositional Goal Orientations on Volunteer Performance in Citizen Science Projects[J]. Computers in Human Behavior, 2020,107:106266.
[101] Zhao Y C, Zhu Q . Conceptualizing Task Affordance in Online Crowdsourcing Context[J]. Online Information Review, 2016,40(7):938-958.
[102] 冯剑红, 李国良, 冯建华 . 众包技术研究综述[J]. 计算机学报, 2015,38(9):1713-1726.
[102] ( Feng Jianhong, Li Guoliang, Feng Jianhua . A Survey on Crowdsourcing[J]. Chinese Journal of Computers, 2015,38(9):1713-1726.)
[103] 张亭亭, 赵宇翔, 朱庆华 . 众包社区中基于敏感性分析的用户偏好挖掘模型及实验[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2018,2(5):23-31.
[103] ( Zhang Tingting, Zhao Yuxiang, Zhu Qinghua . Mining User Preferences in Crowdsourcing Community with Sensitivity Analysis[J]. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 2018,2(5):23-31.)
[104] Yuen M C, King I, Leung K S. Task Matching in Crowdsourcing[C]// Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Internet of Things and 4th International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Dalian, China. Washington, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2011: 409-412.
[105] Qutab S, Myers M D, Gardner L, et al. Information Disorder in the GLAM Sector: The Challenges of Crowdsourced Contributions[C]// Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm & Uppsala, Sweden. 2019: 1-12.
[106] 张亭亭, 赵宇翔, 朱庆华 . 数字图书馆移动视觉搜索的众包模式初探, 情报资料工作, 2016(4):11-18.
[106] ( Zhang Tingting, Zhao Yuxiang, Zhu Qinghua . A Probe into Crowdsourcing Model of Digital Library Mobile Visual Search, Information and Documentation Services, 2016(4):11-18.)
[107] Eveleigh A, Jennett C, Lynn S, et al. “I Want to be a Captain! I Want to be a Captain!”: Gamification in the Old Weather Citizen Science Project[C]// Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Application, Toronto, Canada. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2013: 79-82.
[108] McKinley D. Design Principles for Crowdsourcing Cultural Heritage[R/OL]. [ 2020- 08- 17]. .
[109] Parilla L L, Ferriter M . Social Media and Crowdsourced Transcription of Historical Materials at the Smithsonian Institution: Methods for Strengthening Community Engagement and Its Tie to Transcription Output[J]. American Archivist, 2016,79(2):438-460.
[110] Ambati V, Vogel S, Carbonell J G. Collaborative Workflow for Crowdsourcing Translation[C]// Proceedings of the ACM 2012 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Seattle, Washington, USA. New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2012: 1191-1194.
[111] Blickhan S, Krawczyk C, Hanson D R , et al. Individual vs. Collaborative Methods of Crowdsourced Transcription, Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities, 2019(12):1-33.
[112] Causer T, Grint K, Sichani A , et al. ‘Making Such Bargain’: Transcribe Bentham and the Quality and Cost-effectiveness of Crowdsourced Transcription[J]. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 2018,33(3):467-487.
[113] Alabduljabbar R, Al-Dossari H . A Dynamic Selection Approach for Quality Control Mechanisms in Crowdsourcing[J]. IEEE Access, 2019,7:38644-38656.
[1] Zhang Qi,Jiang Chuan,Ji Youshu,Feng Minxuan,Li Bin,Xu Chao,Liu Liu. Unified Model for Word Segmentation and POS Tagging of Multi-Domain Pre-Qin Literature[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2021, 5(3): 2-11.
[2] Wang Qian,Wang Dongbo,Li Bin,Xu Chao. Deep Learning Based Automatic Sentence Segmentation and Punctuation Model for Massive Classical Chinese Literature[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2021, 5(3): 25-34.
[3] Liang Jiwen,Jiang Chuan,Wang Dongbo. Chinese-English Sentence Alignment of Ancient Literature Based on Multi-feature Fusion[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2020, 4(9): 123-132.
[4] Xu Chenfei, Ye Haiying, Bao Ping. Automatic Recognition of Produce Entities from Local Chronicles with Deep Learning[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2020, 4(8): 86-97.
[5] Liu Liu,Qin Tianyun,Wang Dongbo. Automatic Extraction of Traditional Music Terms of Intangible Cultural Heritage[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2020, 4(12): 68-75.
[6] Haici Yang,Jun Wang. Visualizing Knowledge Graph of Academic Inheritance in Song Dynasty[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2019, 3(6): 109-116.
[7] Yue Yuan,Dongbo Wang,Shuiqing Huang,Bin Li. The Comparative Study of Different Tagging Sets on Entity Extraction of Classical Books[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2019, 3(3): 57-65.
  Copyright © 2016 Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery   Tel/Fax:(010)82626611-6626,82624938