Please wait a minute...
Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (6): 14-24    DOI: 10.11925/infotech.2096-3467.2020.1210
Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Review of Key Technologies of High Performance Blockchain
Dong Zhenheng1,Lv Xueqiang1,2(),Ren Weiping1,Jiang Yang1,2,Li Guolin1,2
1Beijing Key Laboratory of Internet Culture and Digital Dissemination Research, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing 100101, China
2Sunshine e-buy (Beijing) Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing 100036, China
Download: PDF (626 KB)   HTML ( 23
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

[Objective] This paper examines the key technologies and major issues of high-performance blockchain, and then explores its research trend and future development. [Coverage] We searched “Consensus Algorithm”, “Smart Contract”, and “Blockchain” in Chinese and English with Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and other Internet resources. A total of 39 documents were selected for this review. [Methods] We summarized the evolution of consensus algorithm, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of smart contract applications or platforms. [Results] This study discussed the key issues and methods of the consensus algorithm and smart contracts for high-performance blockchain. [Limitations] We only reviewed the representative consensus algorithms and implementation platforms. [Conclusions] This paper summarizes the technologies of high-performance blockchain and provides ideas for the future research.

Key wordsHigh Performance      Blockchain      Consensus Algorithm      Smart Contract     
Received: 03 December 2020      Published: 06 July 2021
ZTFLH:  TP309  
Corresponding Authors: Lv Xueqiang     E-mail:

Cite this article:

Dong Zhenheng,Lv Xueqiang,Ren Weiping,Jiang Yang,Li Guolin. Review of Key Technologies of High Performance Blockchain. Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery, 2021, 5(6): 14-24.

URL:     OR

[1] Nakamoto S. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System[R]. Manubot, 2019.
[2] Treleaven P, Brown R G, Yang D. Blockchain Technology in Finance[J]. Computer, 2017,50(9):14-17.
[3] Chang V, Baudier P, Zhang H, et al. How Blockchain Can Impact Financial Services — The Overview, Challenges and Recommendations from Expert Interviewees[J]. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2020,158:120166.
doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120166
[4] Saberi S, Kouhizadeh M, Sarkis J, et al. Blockchain Technology and Its Relationships to Sustainable Supply Chain Management[J]. International Journal of Production Research, 2019,57(7):2117-2135.
doi: 10.1080/00207543.2018.1533261
[5] Chen Y, Ding S, Xu Z, et al. Blockchain-Based Medical Records Secure Storage and Medical Service Framework[J]. Journal of Medical Systems, 2019,43(1): Article No.5.
[6] Smorgunov L V. Blockchain as Institution of Procedural Justice[J]. Polis.Political Studies, 2018,5(5):88-99.
[7] Saleh H, Avdoshin S, Dzhonov A. Platform for Tracking Donations of Charitable Foundations Based on Blockchain Technology[C]// Proceedings of the 2019 Actual Problems of Systems and Software Engineering. IEEE, 2019: 182-187.
[8] Yan J, Zhang F, Ma J, et al. Environmental Monitoring System Based on Blockchain[C]// Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Crowd Science and Engineering. 2019: 40-43.
[9] 陈纯. 联盟区块链关键技术与区块链的监管挑战[J]. 中国工业和信息化, 2020(11):54-58.
[9] (Chen Chun. Key Technologies of Alliance Block Chain and Regulatory Challenges of Block Chain[J]. China Industry and Information Technology, 2020(11):54-58.)
[10] 韩璇, 刘亚敏. 区块链技术中的共识机制研究[J]. 信息网络安全, 2017(9):147-152.
[10] (Han Xuan, Liu Yamin. Research on the Consensus Mechanisms of Blockchain Technology[J]. Netinfo Security, 2017(9):147-152.)
[11] Rodríguez G E, Benavides D E, Torres J, et al. Cookie Scout: An Analytic Model for Prevention of Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Using a Cookie Classifier[C]// Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology and Systems. Springer, Cham, 2018: 497-507.
[12] 袁勇, 王飞跃. 区块链技术发展现状与展望[J]. 自动化学报, 2016,42(4):481-494.
[12] (Yuan Yong, Wang Feiyue. Blockchain:The State of the Art and Future Trends[J]. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2016,42(4):481-494.)
[13] Lamport L. The Part-Time Parliament[J]. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 1998,16(2):133-169.
doi: 10.1145/279227.279229
[14] 杨立君, 郭林. 面向云计算基础课程的Paxos算法教学设计研究[J]. 软件导刊 2019,18(10):191-194, 200.
[14] (Yang Lijun, Guo Lin. Research on Teaching Design of Paxos Algorithm for Basic Courses of Cloud Computing[J]. Software Guide, 2019,18(10):191-194, 200.)
[15] PDFT/Paxos/Raft-分布式一致性协议解析[R/OL]. [2020-07-28].
[15] (Analysis of PDFT/Paxos/Raft Distributed Consistency Protocol[R/OL]. [2020-07-28].
[16] Ongaro D, Ousterhout J. In Search of an Understandable Consensus Algorithm[C]// Proceedings of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. 2014: 305-319.
[17] 详解分布式共识(一致性)算法Raft[R/OL]. (2019-05-27). [2020-08-12].
[17] (Explain the Distributed Consensus Algorithm Raft[R/OL]. (2019-05-27). [2020-08-12].
[18] Kotla R, Clement A, Wong E, et al. Zyzzyva: Speculative Byzantine Fault Tolerance[J]. Communications of the ACM, 2008,51(11):86-95.
[19] Li J, Wolf T. A One-Way Proof-of-Work Protocol to Protect Controllers in Software-Defined Networks[C]// Proceedings of the 2016 Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems. 2016: 123-124.
[20] King S, Nadal S. PPCoin: Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with Proof-of-Stake[OL]. Self-published Paper, August 19th, 2012.
[21] Karantias K, Kiayias A, Zindros D. Proof-of-burn[C]// Proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Springer, Cham, 2020: 523-540.
[22] Gilad Y, Hemo R, Micali S, et al. Algorand: Scaling Byzantine Agreements for Cryptocurrencies[EB/OL]. (2017-09-24). [2020-07-12].
[23] Chen L, Xu L, Shah N, et al. On Security Analysis of Proof-of-Elapsed-Time(PoET)[C]// Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems. Springer, Cham, 2017: 282-297.
[24] Larimer D. Delegated Proof of Stake[EB/OL]. (2014-04-03). [2020-07-31].
[25] Lamport L, Shostak R, Pease M. The Byzantine Generals Problem[J]. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 1982,4(3). DOI: 10.1145/357172.357176.
[26] Castro M, Liskov B. Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance[C]// Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation. 1999.
[27] Aublin P L, Mokhtar S B, Quéma V. RBFT: Redundant Byzantine Fault Tolerance[C]// Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. IEEE, 2013: 297-306.
[28] Cowling J A, Myers D S, Liskov B, et al. HQ Replication: A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Byzantine Fault Tolerance[C]// Proceedings of the 7th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, Seattle, WA, USA. USENIX Association, 2006.
[29] Shoker A, Bahsoun J P, Yabandeh M. Improving Independence of Failures in BFT[C]// Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications. IEEE, 2013: 227-234.
[30] 韩镇阳, 宫宁生, 任珈民. 一种区块链实用拜占庭容错算法的改进[J]. 计算机应用与软件, 2020,37(2):226-233, 294.
[30] (Han Zhenyang, Gong Ningsheng, Ren Jiamin. An Improved Block Chain Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerant Algorithm[J]. Computer Applications and Software, 2020,37(2):226-233, 294.)
[31] Szabo N. Smart Contracts[EB/OL]. [2020-08-20].
[32] 欧阳丽炜, 王帅, 袁勇, 等. 智能合约:架构及进展[J]. 自动化学报, 2019,45(3):445-457.
[32] (Ouyang Liwei, Wang Shuai, Yuan Yong, et al. Smart Contracts: Architecture and Research Progresses[J]. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2019,45(3):445-457.)
[33] Stark J. Making Sense of Ethereum’s Layer 2 Scaling Solutions: State Channels, Plasma, and Truebit[EB/OL]. [2018-07-23].
[34] Taxa Website[EB/OL]. [2020-08-10].
[35] Buterin V. A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform[R/OL].
[36] 贺海武, 延安, 陈泽华. 基于区块链的智能合约技术与应用综述[J]. 计算机研究与发展, 2018,55(11):2452-2466.
[36] (He Haiwu, Yan An, Chen Zehua. Survey of Smart Contract Technology and Application Based on Blockchain[J]. Journal of Computer Research and Development, 2018,55(11):2452-2466.)
[37] Dhillon V, Metcalf D, Hooper M. The Hyperledger Project[A]// Blockchain Enabled Applications[M]. 2017: 139-149.
[38] Cachin C. Architecture of the Hyperledger Blockchain Fabric[C]// Proceedings of the 2016 Workshop on Distributed Cryptocurrencies and Consensus Ledgers. 2016.
[39] CITA技术白皮书阅读与思考[R/OL]. [2020-08-20].
[39] (Reading and Thinking of CITA Technical White Paper[R/OL]. [2020-08-20].
[1] Leng Jidong,Lv Xueqiang,Jiang Yang,Li Guolin. Consensus Mechanisms of Consortium Blockchain: A Survey[J]. 数据分析与知识发现, 2021, 5(1): 56-65.
  Copyright © 2016 Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery   Tel/Fax:(010)82626611-6626,82624938